PATENT OF NOBILITY. Illuminated Manuscript in Spanish.

Vallodolid, 26 September 1708.


[REGUILON family:] Patent of Nobility issued by Philip V, King of Spain, in favour of Francisco Juan Gaitan Reguilon and Franciso Reguilon y Cuevas. Ca. 30.3×19.5 cm. Manuscript on vellum, in Spanish, 200 leaves (including 20 final blanks), 23 or 24 lines, written in black ink in Italic hand, each page framed with red and black rules, the inkstamped armorial seal of Philip V and a notary’s endorsement in the lower margin of each recto, 12 179 historiated initials, of four or five lines, each consisting of a gold capital superimposed on a scene with a landscape or figure, eight large historiated initials, each accompanied by three or four lines of text in gold capitals on alternating red or blue grounds, 58 additional single lines of gold capitals on red or blue grounds introducing sections of text. Two full-page illustrations at front, one of the Reguilon family praying before the Virgin (see description), the other the family’s armorial, with borders comprising the family motto (below), arms (at the sides), a small medallion flanked by flora (above). Original red velvet over wooden boards with large lead seal of Philip V suspended from a double cord braided of crimson, green and yellow silk; crimson silk doubles and 5 original silk interleaves (the velvet slightly worn and stained, slight worming of spine and doubles, wanting centrepiece and corner-piece bosses). Gauffered edges, gilt.

A beautifully illustrated patent of nobility, with numerous scenic and decorated initials, the frontispiece depicts members of the family in the chapel kneeling and praying before an altarpiece in which there is an image of the Virgin being lifted up to the sky and crowned by angels. The Holy Ghost oversees the scene. The image of the Virgin recalls popular Spanish devotional icons such as the famous Virgin of Atocha in Madrid. This association is relevant because Valladolid is a city near to Madrid. However, unlike the Atocha Virgin, the Virgin here is childless.




England, ca. 1590?


Small Quarto (14.7 x 20.2 cm.). Manuscript Latin treatise on Astrological Medicine, fifty-five unnumbered pages, with three horoscopes, and several pages of argumentative diagrams and tables incorporated with the text, written in a fair hand, with no crossings-out, interlinear or marginal additions. Bound in contemporary vellum (England, late C16th), ruled in gilt, with gilt italianate central medallion, decorative gilt corner-pieces incorporating flaming torches, and four gilt-stamped acorns on each cover, remains of ties, slightly creased and soiled. All edges gilt.

To our knowledge the most complete example of a rare treatise on astrological medicine, written in a clear secretarial hand and in an English Renaissance collector’s binding. The title is that of an ancient text by pseudo-Hermes Trismegistus, but this is a different work. The Hermes text, originally Greek, was published in two separate sixteenth-century Latin translations, each printed several times: the present book is not a copy of either, and, although it may borrow content, it is not a new translation.

Iatromathematics is defined in the introduction as “the means of revealing the properties, future instances and particular causes of sickness through contemplation of the stars and sky”. The author gives a warning from Lucretius concerning making calculations on bad scientific principles. He then explains “What to look for in the heavens the illness might be” (the text here followed by tables, referring both to body-parts and afflictions, and signs of the zodiac), “What part of the body might be infirm”, “whether or not the affliction will last”, “Whether or not [the person] will recover”, “Changes in illness, when or why they may happen, and whether they indicate good or bad things”. A study, with three horoscopes, is given of a man who was confined to his bed at 2 p.m. on June 5 1557 and died at 11 p.m. on June 14. Answers to the questions listed above are given for his case.

We were provided with information at the book’s purchase, that it came from the library of Lord Delamere of Vale Royal Abbey, Cheshire. The Cholmondeley family, who had this title, inhabited 11 Vale Royal from 1615 to 1948, and lived elsewhere in Cheshire before this, but the book was possibly made for a member of a different family on account of the gilt acorns to the covers: these could well be heraldic insignia, and acorns do not appear on recorded Cholmondeley armorials. Sixteenth- to seventeenth-century English manuscript culture is increasingly recognised for its liveliness, and the present volume illustrates this. We have found one other variant example of this text, without the introduction or the horoscopes, amongst the Sloane MSS. of the British Library (Sloane MS 1770 fols. 120–130), which are recognised for their importance in medical history. This other example is written in a less clearly legible working hand, from the same period as our manuscript.

This work not in Lynn Thorndike, Pearl Kibre, Catalogue of incipits of Medieval Scientific Writings in Latin (Revised edition, Cambridge, Mass., 1963), nor Neil Ker, A.J. Piper, Medieval Manuscripts in British Libraries (Oxford 1969–92). Not in Julian Roberts, Andrew G. Watson, John Dee’s Library Catalogue (London 1990). On editions of Hermes Trismegistus see Paolo Lucentini, V. Perrone Compagni, I testi e I codici de Ermete nel Medioevo (Florence 2001). On English manuscripts see the introduction to H. R. Woudhuysen, Sir Philip Sidney and the circulation of manuscripts 1558–1640 (Oxford 1996). On Sloane medical manuscripts see M. A. E. Nickson, ‘Books and Manuscripts’, in Arthur MacGregor, ed., Sir Hans Sloane, Collector, Scientist, Antiquary (London 1994), 263–278, see 269. We are very grateful to Dr Sophie Page of UCL for invaluable advice and bibliography.



BREVIARY. The Breviary of the Augustinian Abbey of Saint-Loup, Troyes, in Latin, illuminated manuscript on vellum

[north-central France (Troyes, dept. Aube), c. 1475-80]


152 leaves (plus 3 paper endleaves at front and back), wanting seven gatherings (revealed by catchwords) and slightly misbound (gatherings 8, 9 and 10 misbound), and thus since turn of nineteenth century at least, collation: i-viii8, ix6, x-xiii8, xiv6, xv-xviii8, xix6, xx4, xxi2double column of 33 lines, capitals touched in yellow, rubrics in red, numerous small initials in burnished gold on blue or pink grounds heightened with white penwork (some enclosing coloured foliage), hairline foliage emerging at edges and terminating in gold leaves and coloured flower-heads, ten column-wide miniatures (each approximately 60 by 50mm.), each accompanied by full decorated borders of stylised foliage and acanthus leaf sprays, all set within hairline foliage with gold leaves and bezants enclosing peacocks, other birds and insects, staining and smudging to fol. 1 and other leaves, occasional flaking of paint elsewhere, else in good condition, 220 by 160mm.; early nineteenth-century brown calf, gilt-tooled with frame of scrolling fern-leaf foliage and profusely gilt spine with title “Cartæ / Extractæ / Breviarii / Sti Lupi”, by Pierre Courteval (of Carmes Street, Paris, where he worked from 1796 to 1836: his printed label pasted to endleaf), with blue wateredsilk pastedowns and doublures (split to upper joint of binding, spots and rubbed in places).


Text: Breviary, with the Temporale opening with the first Sunday of Advent, and ending imperfectly with Gospel readings for the Sundays from Pentecost to Advent running to the twelfth Sunday (fols. 1r-108r); followed by the Sanctorale, opening imperfectly before the feast of St Vincent and ending just after the feast of St Clement (fols.109r-152v). This is most probably the last manuscript codex from this important medieval library which remains in private hands, and thus the only one which could be acquired still. As noted above, the rest of the library seems to have passed directly into institutional ownership, and the vast and comprehensive Schoenberg database records no other manuscript from this library on the open market since records of auction sales began in the seventeenth century.

Illumination: The miniatures are the work of the Master of Guyot Le Peley, named for the Troyes citizen whose commissions, along with those of his family members, would occupy the artist in c. 1475-80 (see F. Avril and N. Reynaud, Les manuscrits à peintures en France, 1995, pp. 186-188). They resemble most closely a miniature added by the artist to a Book of Hours now Paris, S.M.A.F., ms. 79-5 (see also F. Avril et al. Très Riches Heures de Champagne, Paris, 2007, pp.144-145), depicting St Nicholas before the Le Peley family. Particularly distinctive are his very beautiful female faces, with almond-shaped eyes and high-arched brows. The borders, inhabited by birds, are those seen in two versions of Guillaume de Nangis’ Chronique des rois de France (now Paris, BnF, Français 2598 and Baltimore, Walters Art Gallery, W.306).

Miniatures: (1) fol. 1r, Isaiah; (2) fol. 18r, Nativity; (3) fol. 31v, Adoration of the Magi; (4) fol. 48r, Resurrection; (5) fol. 64v, Ascension; (6) fol. 76r, Pentecost; (7) fol. 115r, Presentation in the Temple; (8) fol. 121r, Annunciation; (9) fol. 132v, Assumption of the Virgin; (10) fol. 141v, Mary enthroned as Queen of Heaven.

Provenance: (1) Written and illuminated for use in the Abbey of Saint-Loup, Troyes (with rubric: “Incipit br[e]v[i]ariu[m] s[e]c[un]d[u]m usu[m] ecc[lesia]e et monasterii s[an]cti lupi trecen[sis]”, and with St. Sabianus of Troyes in the Sanctorale). In about 841 the monastery was the custodian of the relics of St Lupus of Troyes, a former bishop of the town who legendarily defended the site against the incursions of Attila the Hun in the fifth century. Later the community was moved inside the town walls for safety, and converted to a monastic community in 1135 by Bernard of Clairvaux. They converted to Augustinian rule soon after and through the efforts of their scriptorium and library came to be one of the most important cultural centres of the region around Troyes. The house was suppressed during the Secularisation at the end of the eighteenth century and the opening of the nineteenth century, and the vast majority of the library of this crucial centre passed directly into municipal ownership, with the vast majority of surviving manuscripts now in the Médiathèque du Grand Troyes. The present manuscript, however, escaped, and perhaps left the community with one of its last members, being carried away by a retiring Augustinian friar. (2) It was presumably in an early and deteriorating binding at the time it left Saint-Loup, and was perhaps rebound for its first secular owner, perhaps of Paris (note named Parisian binding). (3) Maurice Burrus (1882-1959; his MS. 105), with his printed bookplate dated 1937 by “Stern GR”; acquired at auction: GiraudBadin, 3 May 1937, lot 1. Thus, this codex has most probably had only four owners in the last half millennia, and the final three of those in the last century.



BOOK OF HOURS. Use of Rome, in Latin, manuscript on vellum.

[Italy (Ferrara?), around 1480]


Ca. 10,5×7,5 cm; ix(paper)+167+viii(paper), collation: i12, ii-xvi10, xvii10-5 (last 5 cancelled), vertical catchwords, 15 lines (about 6x4cm), 6 large beautifully floriated initials with full borders, 7 seven-line initials with borders at Lauds, Prime, etc.; smaller initials at minor divisions, two- and one-line initials throughout, many with remarkably refined penwork showing birds, wolves and other fantastic creatures. Some wear, a few extremities of decoration cropped. Bound in contemporary calf, three corner-pieces and one catch extant, worn and faulty; text block’s top edge with inscription “158”. This is a very high quality and charming devotional pocket book, finely painted, with an intricate design and with incredibly vivid and fresh colours. Text and Illumination: Calendar (f.1r); Hours of the Virgin “secundum consuetudinem romane curie”, with Matins (f.13r), Lauds (fol.23v), Prime (f.34v), Terce (fol.38r), Sext (f.41v), None (f.44v), Vespers (f.47v), Compline (f.54r), and variants for different days of the week (f.58r); Office of the Dead (f.73r); Penitential Psalms (f.113r), litany (f.123v) and 10 collects; Hours of the Passion (i.e. Long Hours of the Cross), with Matins (f.133r), Prime (f.142v), Terce (f.144v), Sext (f.146r), None (f.148r), Vespers (f.150r), Compline (f.152r); (short) Hours of the Cross, preceded by a rubric detailing an indulgence of Pope John XXII (f.155r); Mass of the Virgin (f.159r); added prayers, etc. in a later hand (f.164v). Illuminations: (1) Virgin and Child, the border with the Annunciation and two (?) prophets (f.13r); (2) a Skull, the border with a bird and a goat (f.73r); (3) King David in prayer, the border with a swan and a hare (f.113r); (4) Man of Sorrows, the borders with a rabbit and a deer (f.133r); (5) the Cross with Nails and Crown of Thorns (f.155r); (6) a priest performing the Mass (f.159r).

Provenance: 1) Original patron’s coat of arms in the border of the opening of the Hours of the Virgin (f.13r): a shield with azure background, and within a white demi unicorn with a golden horn and collar, and an horizontal band; possibly the de Monte family of Rome (though lacking the band), see J.B. Rietstap, Armorial Général, II, p. 250. The calendar includes Petronius of Bologna (4 Oct.), but the palette and penwork decoration suggest that the book was probably made in Ferrara. 2) The Estate of Corlies Maynard. 3) To the Church of the Holy Comforter, Kenilworth, Illinois.